Monday, 29 May 2017

Hamadan

Hamadan Gallery

Hamadān or Hamedān is the capital city of Hamedan Province of Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 473,149, in 127,812 families.Hamadan is believed to be among the oldest Iranian cities and one of the oldest in the world. It is possible that it was occupied by the Assyrians in 1100 BCE; the Ancient Greek historian, Herodotus, states that it was the capital of the Medes, around 700 BCE. Hamadan has a green mountainous area in the foothills of the 3,574-meter Alvand Mountain, in the midwest part of Iran. The city is 1,850 meters above sea level. The special nature of this old city and its historic sites attract tourists during the summer to this city, located approximately 360 kilometres (224 miles) southwest of Tehran. The main symbols of this city are the Ganj Nameh inscription, the Avicenna monument and the Baba Taher monument. People of the city identify their mother tongue as Persian.According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth, "Hamadan is a very old city. It may conceivably, but improbably, be mentioned in cuneiform texts from ca. 1100 BC, the time of Assyrian King Tiglath-pilesar I, but is certainly mentioned by Herodotus (i.98) who says that the king of Media Diokes built the city of Agbatana or Ekbatana in the 7th century BC."Hamadan was established by the Medes and was the capital of the Median empire. It then became one of several capital cities of the Achaemenid Dynasty.Hamadan is mentioned in the biblical book of Ezra as the place where a scroll was found giving the Jews permission from King Darius to rebuild the temple in Jerusalem. (Ezra 6:2). Its ancient name of Ecbatana is used in the Ezra text. Because it was a mile above sea level, it was a good place to preserve leather documents. During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon was the capital of the country, and Hamadan the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadan. In the year 633 the battle of Nahavand took place and Hamadan fell into the hands of the Muslim Arabs.

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Historic Tourist Attractions In Hamedan :

Ganjnameh


Ganjnameh


Ganj Nameh is an ancient inscription, 5 km southwest of Hamedan, on the side of Alvand Mountain in Iran. The inscription, which has been carved in granite, is composed of two sections. One ordered by Darius the Great  and the other ordered by Xerxes the Great . Both sections, which have been carved in three ancient languages of Old Persian, Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Elamite, start with praise of God (Ahura Mazda) and describe the lineage and deeds of the mentioned kings. The later generations who could not read the Cuneiform alphabets of the ancient Persian assumed that they contained the guide to an uncovered treasury; hence they called it Ganjnameh. The name literally means "treasure epistle", but it has also been called Jangnameh whose literal translation is "war epistle".

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Ecbatana


Ecbatana


Ecbatana was an ancient city in Media in western Iran. It is believed that Ecbatana is in Tell Hagmatana (Tappa-ye Hagmatāna), near Hamedan. but the history of the city is controversial. Excavations at Kaboutar Ahang have revealed stone age tools and pottery from 1400 to 1200 BC. According to Herodotus, Ecbatana was chosen as the Medes' capital in the late 8th century B.C.E. by Deioces. Under the Persian kings, Ecbatana, situated at the foot of Mount Alvand, became a summer residence. Later, it became the capital of the Parthian kings, at which time it became their main mint, producing drachm, tetradrachm, and assorted bronze denominations. It is also mentioned in the Hebrew Bible under the name Achmetha (also spelled Ahmetha, e.g. JTS Bible). In 330 BC, Ecbatana was the site of the murder of the Macedonian general Parmenion by order of Alexander.Ecbatana was first excavated in 1913 by Charles Fossey.

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Alaviyan Tomb Tower


Alaviyan Tomb Tower


A four-sided structure housing the resting place for two of the members of the Alavian family, the tomb dates back to Seljuk period. Covered from inside with blue tiles, the dome is externally decorated with inlaid bricks placed in a diamond pattern.

Tomb of Esther and Mordecai


Tomb of Esther and Mordecai


The Tomb of Esther and Mordechai is located in Hamadan, Iran. Widely believed to house the remains of the biblical Queen Esther and her cousin Mordechai, it is the most important pilgrimage site for Jews in the country. In 1891, the tomb was described as consisting of an outer and inner chamber surmounted by a dome about 50 feet (15 m) high. The dome had been covered with blue tiles, but most of them had fallen away. A few tombs of worthy Jewish individuals were located within the outer chamber. According to Stuart Brown, the site is more probably the sepulcher of Shushandukht, the Jewish consort of the Sasanian king Yazdegerd I .Another tradition first recorded during the Middle Ages places the graves of Esther and Mordechai in the Galilean archaeological site of Kfar Bar'am, close to the kibbutz of the same name, Bar'am, along Israel's northern border with Lebanon.

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Avicenna Tomb


Avicenna Tomb


The great philosopher, scholar, physician of Iran, Avicenna wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects of which around 240 have survived. His tomb, constructed in the present from during 1946-1951, has a stoned facade with ten stone columns each of which stand witness to a century from the time of the birth Avicenna.The new memorial structure of the tomb of Avecina (Bu Ali Sina), was constructed in the year 1941 right in its former location. From the architectural aspect the dome of the said structure is an inspiration from 'The Gonbad-e-Qaboos' in the plains of Gorgan, and 'Persepolis' or Takht-e-Jamshid. In the museum here, ancient relics, an anthropology section and books of Avecina are on display. Besides which exhibits such as bronze statues related to the 1st millennium BC., gourd bottles (or canteens), coins, beads and articles of silver related to the Sassanide period. The tomb of the great Gnostic 'Qazvini' is also located in this vicinity.

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